11 Okt The Kyoto Protocol Is An International Agreement That Limits Cfc Production
CDMs and MOCs are called “project-based mechanisms” because they generate emission reductions from projects. The difference between the EIT and project-based mechanisms is that the EIT is based on the definition of a quantitative limitation on emissions, while the CDM and JHA are based on the idea of `producing` emission reductions.  The CDM aims to encourage the production of emission reductions in Contracting Parties other than Annex I, while JHA encourages the production of emission reductions in Annex I Contracting Parties. In 2018, scientists monitoring the atmosphere after the 2010 expiration date reported the persistence of industrial production of CFC-11, likely in East Asia, with negative global impacts on the ozone layer.   A monitoring study uncovered new atmospheric releases of carbon tetrachloride from Shandong Province of China, which began after 2012 and accounted for a large portion of emissions that exceeded global Montreal Protocol estimates.  In 1977, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) concluded a global plan of action on the ozone layer that required intensive international research and monitoring of the ozone layer, and in 1981, the UNEP Governing Council authorized UNEP to develop a global framework agreement for protection against stratospheric ozone. The Vienna Convention, concluded in 1985, is a framework agreement by which States undertake to cooperate in relevant research and scientific evaluation of the ozone problem, to exchange information and to take appropriate measures to prevent activities that harm the ozone layer. The commitments are general and do not contain specific limit values for ozone-depleting chemicals. Then, in 1985, scientists Joe Farman, Brian Gardiner and Jon Shanklin of the British Antarctic Survey published abnormally low results of ozone concentrations on Halley Bay near the South Pole.
They speculated that this coexisted with an increase in the CFC content in the atmosphere. Several more attempts are needed to establish Antarctic losses as real and significant, especially after NASA has recovered concordant data from its satellite images. The effects of these studies, the metaphor “Hole in the Ozone Layer” and the colorful visual representation in an accelerated animation proved shocking enough for negotiators in Montreal, Canada, to take the subject seriously.  Australia plays an active role in the ongoing negotiations on the Montreal Protocol and ensures that further measures to protect the ozone layer are scientifically sound and technically feasible and that developing countries are assisted in phasing out ozone-depleting substances and HFCs. . . .